Autoimmune disease is a pathological condition in which excessive immune reactions emerge targeting normal healthy tissues and cells within the patient’s body (autoantigen). Autoimmune disease can be divided into organ-specific autoimmune diseases (Type 1 diabetes, Graves’ disease, etc.) and systemic autoimmune disease (Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, etc.). The most prevalent treatment for autoimmune diseases is intaking immuno-suppressive drugs to suppress the number and function of hyperactive lymphocytes that have excessively expanded. However, immuno-suppressive drugs, the currently predominant treatment strategy, do not address the fundamental issue and impose general and non-specific suppression on the hyperactive immune system. Therefore, the limitation is that there are numerous side effects on the long-term administration of such medications.
Harnessing off-the-shelf allogeneic regulatory T cells to treat transplantation and autoimmune diseases is a promising Cellular immunotherapy therapy by re-balancing the destructive immune system through directly suppressing the number and function of hyperactivated T cells as well as inflammatory responses affecting the patient of the autoimmune disease. It is a strategy to cure the disease without severe side effects.